Air-Source Heat Pumps


About half of the energy we use at home goes into heating and cooling.  Being comfortable is important, and heating needs to be affordable.  Fortunately, technology is coming to the rescue!  Recent years have seen remarkable improvements in super-efficient heat pump heating and cooling systems.  Taking advantage of these requires informed investment in the right equipment, which can pay off within a few years in many cases.

Mini-split heat pump

Mini-split heat pump: outdoor compressor

Heat pumps now come in several varieties, including ductless mini-splits and multi-splits, and central systems using ductwork.  There are also “ground-source” heat pumps which use the ground as a heat reservoir, and others which use the outdoor air. These air-source heat pumps are generally the most cost effective for upgrading heating systems. Like an air-conditioner (which is an example of a heat pump) there is a compressor located outside, and one or more air-handlers inside the home.  A key difference is that heat pumps can operate in both

Mini-split heat pump: indoor blower unit

directions, heating in winter and cooling in summer.   Heat pumps have been around for years and are widely used in Europe and Asia, as well as warmer parts of the US.  What is new is that several manufactures now make heat pumps that are far more efficient than before, and which operate down to outdoor temperatures below 0 degrees F, making them useful in New England.

The CO2 footprint is half that of other heating options.  Read the Cooler Concord introduction to heat pumps for more information.

Recommended Actions:

  1. Sign up for a Heating System Assessment from CSEC:  You will be contacted by a CSEC intern via e-mail, or phone if you prefer.  From information you provide, your needs will be evaluated and recommendations made considering the cost, pay-back, and decreased CO2 emissions of converting your home heating system to a heat pump.
  2. Install a high efficiency air-source heat pump system for the lowest energy footprint:   CSEC can provide some guidance for contacting installers, understanding quotes, and choosing equipment.
  3. OR – if a heat pump doesn’t make financial sense, upgrade to a more efficient boiler or furnace.

Financial Considerations:

Whether a heat pump will make financial sense for you depends on several things: the particular system(s) and capacity being considered, the fuel used in your existing furnace or boiler, and the price of electricity and the other fuel.  Of course, the price of heating fuels varies dramatically with time, and future prices are uncertain.

Equipment Cost

For a typical installation, we look at the economics using recent fuel prices (2016) and representative costs for available systems.  The table at right shows the typical efficiency, annual cost and typical equipment installation cost for different heating fuels and systems.  For Air-source heat pumps, equipment costs can vary significantly.  For comparison, we use a standard installed cost of $11,000 (before incentives) for a central ducted system (typically 36,000-56,000 BTU/hr), and an installed cost of $4,500 (before incentives) for mini-split systems, typically 9,000-24,000 BTU/hr, for which you need one system per room to be heated.


  • For Concord residents, CMLP currently offers a Central AC/Heat Pump rebate of up to $350 per Ton (12,000 Btu/hour) of capacity. In 2017, CMLP is considering increasing the rebate per Ton of capacity, for cold climate heat pumps only. Subscribe to Cooler Concord for latest information.
  • For non-Concord residents, MassSave offers a Heat Pump rebate of $500 for qualified equipment, with 0% interest financing. Ask your HVAC contractor or contact for latest details.

Typical Pay-Back Periods

For a central ducted system, under the assumption that the system being added  will provide 80% of a typical home’s heat, keeping the original system for back-up heat, and using the recent prices (CMLP electricity: $0.144/kWh, natural gas: $1.60/therm, fuel oil: under $3/gal, propane: $3.50/gal) and a $10,000 installed cost after rebates, typical payback periods are as follows:

  • Natural gas: over 10 year payback
  • Fuel oil: about 8 year payback
  • Propane: under 4 year payback
  • Conventional electric: under 4 year payback

So at first glance, the economics for replacing propane or traditional electric resistance heat are very good, and fairly good for fuel oil as well.  Due to the low price of natural gas, it may not make sense to consider heat pumps unless the CO2 emissions reduction or other benefits are compelling.

Environmental Benefits

CO2 footprint of heating fuels

Average CO2 footprint in Tons/year of different heating fuels.

The amount of CO2 released from heating a home depends on several things: the fuel used, which generates CO2 when combusted (or other greenhouse gases in its production, storage and transportation); the efficiency of the heating system; and the heat load which depends on the square footage and how well insulated the home is. Heat pumps use electricity, which also generates CO2, but since it is several times more efficient to move heat than create it, a heat pump has a smaller CO2 footprint than any of the other systems.

In summary, a heat pump system can save over 10 Tons of CO2 per year compared with oil, electric or propane heat, so installing one is among the most significant actions you can take to reduce emissions.

Other Benefits or Potential Draw-backs

There are numerous other considerations, which will depend on your current situation.  Here we list two benefits and one potential draw-back for some customers:


  • Air Conditioning: in hot weather, heat pumps provide efficient air conditioning even in homes without ductwork;
  • Comfort: heat pumps for cold climates modulate their output to match the home’s actual heating load, which reduces temperature swings in the home.


  • Aesthetics: For ductless mini-­splits, some may be concerned about the aesthetics of the indoor units. Be sure to ask contractors about the different options available.


Q: Can air-source heat pumps really work if it’s very cold outside?   A: Yes, but they should be designed for cold climate homes.  Although older heat pumps may only work down to 30 or 40 °F, many current models are rated down to as low as -15°F, with efficiency twice as high as conventional electric.  For a heat pump to work at those low temperatures, it needs to have adequate capacity for the space to be heated.

Q:  Should I use a ducted or ductless heat pump?    A: A central ducted system (one outdoor unit and an indoor unit) is a good solution for homes with existing ductwork.  Other homes can use ductless mini-splits (one outdoor/indoor unit pair per room to be heated) or multi-splits (one outdoor unit with multiple indoor units).

Q: How can I know which heat pump to buy, with so many choices to choose from?  A: Choose an outdoor/indoor unit pair with a rating from AHRI (Air-conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute) down to 5°F, with a Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) of 10 or higher.  A certificate of product rating should be provided to you by your HVAC contractor.  It should be an inverter-driven heat pump, allowing it to operate over a wide speed range, to keep your home at an even temperature without much on-off cycling.

Q: Will a heat pump heat my home all by itself?     A: Your heat pump system will be sized for heating, which is larger than one sized just for cooling.  But since its heating capacity falls with outdoor temperature, at some low temperature the home will need additional heat.  You can keep your existing system, or install some electric resistance back-up for the lowest temperature days.

Q: How about geothermal, might that be a better option than air-source heat pumps?  A: Geothermal or ground source heat pumps are the highest efficiency option, with larger heating capacity than air-source heat pumps.  But they are expensive to install, costing as much as $30K to dig the well.  For this reason, ground source heat pumps are best considered for new construction.


  1. Department of Energy guide to heat pumps
  2. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships guide to heat pumps
  3. Most HVAC contractors can install heat pumps, but some are more experienced with cold climate heat pumps, including those who participated in the Cooler Concord fair, listed here. Take advantage of independent reviewers such as Angie’s List (, Consumer’s Check-Book ( and others.